GPJ VOL 5 – Climate Change in Ghana: Impacts on Agriculture and the Policy Implications
Ferdinand D. Mawunya; Dilys S. MacCarthy; M. Yangyuoru; Jorgen Eivind Olesen; Ngonidzashe Chirinda; John Asafu-Adjaye
Nov 2013
Climate change is a phenomenon that is currently posing a lot of developmental challenges to many countries worldwide. These countries, majority of which are in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to struggle in their development because their economies are largely supported by agricultural commodities, mainly food and non-food crops. The crux of the matter is that, crop growth and development are intricately dependent on weather and climate. These latter factors are rarely stable and hence prone to high fluctuations at seasonal to annual time scales. The dependence of agricultural systems on an unstable weather and climate system accounts to a great extent, for the seemingly perennial instabilities experienced in agricultural and hence economic output of most developing countries. Thus, they become highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change thereby putting many areas of their lives at risk. Attempts were made in this paper to: (i) highlight the relationship between agriculture, particularly, crops and climate (ii) discuss the expected nature of the impact of climate change on agricultural crops grown in Ghana and (iii) share some views on necessary actions that Ghana needs to take in order to position itself in its attempt to confront the challenges posed to agriculture in Ghana by climate change impacts. ...
GPJ VOL 4 – Oil Production and Ghana’s Economy: What Can We Expect?
John Asafu-Adjaye
Dec 2010
Ghana is on the verge of becoming a significant oil producer. Oil was first discovered in Ghana in 1970 by the US firm AgriPetco off the coast of Saltpond. However, the reserves were not in sufficient commercial quantities and were abandoned for some time. The field is currently being exploited by a joint venture comprising the Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) and Lushann Eternit Energy Limited of Houston. ...
GPJ VOL 4 – An Evaluation of Ghana’s Petroleum Fiscal Regime
Joe Amoako-Tuffour, Joyce Owusu-Ayim
Dec 2010
Who gains the most from the exploitation of a nation’s non-renewable resources when the owner is not the resource developer or producer? The gains come in many forms, but the revenue sharing as defined by the fiscal regime is arguably an important predictor of the distribution of benefits. Petroleum fiscal regimes refer to the fiscal instruments and the contractual framework, which define a host country’s share of the wealth accruing from petroleum production through a host of instruments – bonuses, royalties, profit oil, taxes and government participating interest. ...
GPJ VOL 4 – Accountability Mechanisms in Ghana’s 2010 Proposed Oil Legislation
Patrick R.P. Heller, Antoine Heuty
Dec 2010
Among the many challenges that Ghana faces in reinvigorating its petroleum-sector institutions, one of the most important revolves around the need for accountability. The onset of production brought into sharp focus the critical importance of mechanisms to ensure that oil companies and the Ghanaian government are held accountable to the population. In mid-2010, as first oil loomed, the government introduced to Parliament two major pieces of legislation with divergent approaches to public accountability. ...
GPJ VOL 3 – Students’ Views of Mathematics: A Survey of Junior and Senior High Schools in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions
Ernest K. Awanta
Aug 2009
This study investigated the views of students, their conceptions of mathematics, attitudes toward and habits of learning mathematics, and their perceived difficulty level of various mathematics topics in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of 800 junior high and senior high students in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions. The data collected showed a clear picture of students' perception of mathematics learning with regard to categories of interest, preference for understanding, confidence and competence, textbooks, classroom learning and outside-class learning, and learning habits. It also depicted substantial trends of changing views and attitudes toward mathematics learning across grade levels. Students' responses to the Conception of Mathematics were consistent with previous studies, and demonstrated some specific characteristics of their views of mathematics. This survey has provided useful background information regarding students' needs and aspirations in mathematics learning for curriculum planners and frontline teachers in future curriculum reform and implementation. ...
GPJ VOL 3 – Determinants of the output of the manufacturing industry in Ghana from 1974 To 2006
Kwabena A. Anaman, Charity Osei-Amponsah
Aug 2009
In this paper, the authors seek to ascertain the determinants of manufacturing output in Ghana based on available data from 1974 to 2006 using co-integration and error correction model analysis. The measure of the output of the manufacturing industry was the share of the total economy attributed to the manufacturing industry based on the value added to the gross domestic product. The authors show that the level of output of manufacturing industry was driven in the long-run period by the level of per capita real gross domestic product (GDP), the export-import ratio and political stability. In the short-run period, the level of output of manufacturing was driven by export-import ratio and political activity. The importance of the export-import ratio variable in affecting both long-run and short-run manufacturing output suggested that increasing level of manufacturing in Ghana would partly depend on the growth of export-based manufacturing firms. ...
GPJ VOL 3 – Determinants of technical efficiency of women entrepreneurs in the food processing enterprises in Cape Coast
Vijay Bhasin
Aug 2009
The study looks at the determinants of technical efficiency of women food processors in Cape Coast, Ghana. The study estimates the Cobb-Douglas frontier production function for the women food processors. Electricity, water, equipment and man-hours worked are found to be the signficant determinants of value of output. The elasticity of labour with respect to output is noticed to be the highest. The distribution of technical efficiency shows that there is ample scope for the improvement of technical efficiency of women food processors. The significant determinants of technical efficiency of women food processors are found to be the level of education, number of children, access to credit and adoption of new and efficient technologies at the work place. The Government of Ghana should design policies to concentrate on these significant determinants of technical efficiency to alleviate poverty of women food processors in Cape Coast. ...
GPJ VOL 3 – Understanding the causes and impacts of conflicts in the Northern Region of Ghana
Mohammed Sulemana
Aug 2009
This paper examines the causes and impacts of conflicts in Northern Region with particular reference to the Konkomba inter-ethnic conflicts. It situates the question of conflict within the context of the Northern Region of Ghana and defines conflict as a situation in which people, groups or individuals are involved in a serious disagreement or argument which degenerates into violence. Conflict can also be seen as antagonism between individuals or groups in society. An analysis of inter-ethnic conflicts in Northern Region reveals a pattern of struggle for paramountcy and autonomy. One of the main causes of conflict between Konkomba and other ethnic groups such as the Dagomba, Nanumba and Gonja is the struggle for paramountcy and autonomy. Land ownership and control of land are another major source of ethnic conflicts in Northern Region. Land has remained a thorny social, economic and political issue which has generated a lot of ethnic conflicts between Konkombas and Bimobas, Konkombas and Dagombas, Konkombas and Nanumbas, Konkombas and Gonjas, Gonjas and Nawuris and recently Konkombas and Nawuris. The study relies on a survey of 600 people in different parts of the Northern Region to ascertain the perceptions of people about conflicts in the region. The analysis suggests that almost all the respondents are of the view that an impending major conflict is likely to occur in the Northern Region. There is enough evidence to suggest that all the ethnic groups that were involved in the major conflict in 1994 are stock piling arms to be used in the event of another ethnic war. This observation calls for an urgent examination of potential dangers of another inter-ethnic and intra-ethnic conflict. The early warning signs detected from this study are unambiguous. Therefore adequate measures must be adopted by the Government of Ghana to forestall a major conflict in the Northern Region in the near future. ...
GPJ VOL 3 – Do Ghanaian Farmers have Preferences for the National Biodiversity Strategy? A Case Study of Farmers living around the Kakum National Park in the Central Region
Godwin Kofi Vondolia
Aug 2009
Natural capital constitutes about 20% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in developing countries. However, international environmental agreements require these countries to conserve these resources irrespective of immediate human preferences. This study uses contingent valuation method to assess the preferences of Ghanaian farmers for the Kakum National Park, a microcosm of the National Biodiversity Strategy. The results demonstrate that Ghanaian farmers have strong preferences for the National Biodoversity Strategy. These preferences largely reflect losses households incurred in the form of destruction of crops and property. The findings of this study support the use of distributional weights in evaluating the National Biodiversity Strategy and biodiversity conservation programmes. It is shown that local residents can be partners in biodiversity conservation in developing countries if their preferences are integrated into the design of the National Biodiversity Strategies. ...
GPJ VOL 3 – The Gap Between the Health Status of Rural and Urban Women in Ghana: A Case study of Patients at a Mission Hospital in the Ashanti Region
Eugenia Amporfu
Aug 2009
Rural women play an important role in sustaining the agricultural sector which is often the backbone of many developing countries. However, their share of the national pie does not often reflect the importance of their contribution to the economy. This can have a negative impact on their health. This study used maternity data from a mission hospital in Kuntenase district in the Ashanti region of Ghana to compare the health status of rural and urban women. The results showed that rural women had poorer health status than urban women. In addition, improvement in health was more likely to occur among urban women than rural women. The paper recommends some policies to improve the health of rural women. ...